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As in beer making enzymes are necessary to convert starch into sugar in order for fermentation to take place. But in the case of Sake these enzymes come from a mold (Aspergilus Oryzae) which is cultivated on some of the rice used in the brewing. In a special warm room mold spores are sprinkled onto the moist warm rice and allowed to propogate. After approximately 48 hours this rice can be used for brewing the Sake.